BLS Austin, TX

BLS Quick Reference

Adult BLS Healthcare Provider

Opiod Emergency

Pediatric 1 Rescuer

Pediatric 2 Rescuer

BLS Quick Reference

Action for:AdultChildInfant
Recognition Scene Safety!Unresponsive No breathing No pulse in 5-10 secondsUnresponsive No breathing No pulse in 5-10 secondsUnresponsive No breathing or only gasps No pulse in 5-10 seconds
CPR sequenceC-A-BC-A-BC-A-B
Compression rate100-120100-120100-120
Compression depth  2 to 2.5 inches   cm: 5~ 2 inches (1/3 chest depth)   cm: 5~ 1-1½ inches (1/3 chest depth)   cm: 4
Compression to Breaths Ratio30:2 (1 rescuer)  
30:2 (2 rescuers)
30:2 (1 rescuer)  
15:2 (2 rescuers)
30:2 (1 rescuer)
15:2 (2 rescuers -2 fingers or 2 thumbs encircling
Rescue Breathing  1 breath every 6 seconds1 breath every 2-3 seconds (20-30/min)1 breath every 2-3 seconds
Chest wall recoilAllow complete recoil between compressions Rotate compressors at least every 2 minutes
Compression InterruptionsMinimize Interruptions in chest compressions to <10 seconds
AirwayHead Tilt / Chin Lift
DefibrillationAED ASAP *restore electric activity of heart rhythm* Continue CPR (compressions first) after each shock
CPR+advanced airway1 breath every 6 seconds (10/minute) Do not pause for compressions About 1 second per breath Look for visible chest rise and fall

Cardiac Arrest

(no pulse, no breathing)

*Make sure the area is safe before you approach the patient.*

1.   Establish unresponsiveness. 

2.   Use your cellphone or office phone to Call 9-1-1, put it on speaker.

3.   Tell a helper to get an AED.

4.   Check breathing and pulse for 5 to 10 seconds.

  • Check airway by using the chin lift / head tilt technique (to open the airway)
  • Check pulse by sliding your fingers from the jaw to the side of the neck (carotid for adults) or by grasping inside of child’s arm near inside of bicep (brachial)

5.   If NO pulse → C.A.B. Compressions, Airway Breathing

  • Give 30 Compressions
  • Open Airway (head tilt / chin lift) and give 2 Breaths (look for chest rise)
  • Give 30:2 (30 Compressions then 2 Breaths then repeat). One breath = 1 second.

Helpful hints – COMPRESSIONS

1.   Start compressions within 10 seconds of recognition of arrest, do not delay

2.   Compressions rate of 100-120 per minute (think of songs “Staying Alive”)

3.   Each set of 30 compressions should take 15-18 seconds

4.   Compression depth: 

  • Adults: 2 to 2.4 inches (5 to 6 cm)
  • Children: at least 1/3 (one-third)the depth of the chest), aprx 2 inches (5cm)
  • Infants: at least 1/3 (one-third)the depth of the chest), aprx 1-1/2 inches(4cm)

Helpful Hints – INFANT  CPR (up to 1 year)

  1. 30:2 ratio =1 person CPR
  2. 15:2 ratio =2+ person CPR (15:2 using either thumb encircling method, 2 fingers or 1 heel)

AED USE for Infants / Children

  •  Use an AED with child pads (pedi pads) whenever possible
  •  If no pedi-pads are available, use the adult pads and place them on chest and back (the rationale is their heart still needs the electric shock in order to save their life)
  • If the victim is wet, wipe off their chest prior to placing pads. Shave hair if needed.

When a pulse is present, but not breathing [i.e. RESCUE BREATHING]

1.    Give one Rescue Breath every 5 to 6 seconds for adults – take ONE second to deliver

2.    Give one rescue Breath every 2-3 seconds for infants/children (20/30/min) – small “puff”

CHOKING (awake, conscious)

       ADULT                   CHILD                    INFANT 

Age = (Puberty+)                              (1 year to Puberty)                            (up to 1 year)

  ASK: “Are you choking?    Ask “Are you choking?”Confirm airway obstruction. Check for sudden onset of severe breathing difficulty, ineffective or silent cough, weak cry)
  Give Abdominal Thrusts or Chest Thrusts (if Pregnant or Obese)  Give Abdominal Thrusts or Chest Thrusts (if Pregnant or Obese)  Give 5 back slaps   Give 5 chest thrusts   Repeat until effective or unconscious.
Repeat until victim becomes unresponsive or you clear the foodRepeat until victim becomes unresponsive or you clear the foodRepeat back slaps and chest thrusts until effective or unconscious.

CHOKING (unconscious / unresponsive)

All ages! 

1.   Tell someone “You call 9-1-1 and put phone on speaker. Get an AED”

2.   Lower victim to floor gently. 

**If victim is unresponsive, with no breathing or very shallow breathing….

*Begin CPR (no pulse check required) – start with COMPRESSIONS*

3.   Before you deliver breaths, LOOK IN THE MOUTH. If you see a foreign body that can easily be removed, remove it. 

  • NO blind sweeps since it may push foreign body back down
  • 30 compressions to 2 breaths (30:2) if no pulse
    • (or 15:2 if infant/child and 2+ rescuers)
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